DevOps is one of the fastest-growing job roles within IT, and many companies are scrambling to hire DevOps engineers. These 20 interview questions will help you prepare for your next DevOps position. Also, this guide will help HRs and CTO who are about to hire DevOps engineers to evaluate their skills and choose the best candidate.
The “devops interview questions and answers pdf” is a document that can be downloaded from the internet. This document includes 20 questions and their answers, so you will know what to expect in an interview.
DevOps is quickly gaining traction as a viable approach to create and deliver applications both on-premises and in the cloud. Are you recruiting or conducting interviews for a DevOps position? If that’s the case, make sure you can answer these common DevOps interview questions.
We’ll go through some of the most frequent questions asked in a DevOps interview in this post. To put yourself in the best position to be employed, know the answers to these questions and base your studies on them.
Use these questions as a starting point for further research. Use these questions to gain a sense of the kinds of inquiries you could encounter during an interview.
Business Value and DevOps
DevOps exists above everything else because it adds value to a company. It does this in many ways. Above all, understand how DevOps adds value to your company!
Define DevOps in your own words.
DevOps implies different things to different individuals. In essence, DevOps strives to close the gap between development and operations teams. This is accomplished through increasing production, cutting expenses, minimizing risk, and reducing cycle times.
Individuals, processes, and technology work together in DevOps to give value to customers while continually enhancing market agility. It’s a set of cultural ideas, methods, and tools that help a company swiftly increase its ability to provide technology and services.
DevOps might differ depending on the company you’re interviewing with. It might be a company that follows the actual DevOps concept or one that applies DevOps to the release engineer/platform engineer function. It’s crucial to know the differences and ask questions about them during the interview.
This question may be posed in two ways:
- What does DevOps imply for X firm?
- What is X company’s DevOps daily ritual?
You may also obtain similar information on LinkedIn from other DevOps workers at the organization.
Why would a company choose to use a DevOps model?
An company may decide to use DevOps for the following reasons:
- DevOps helps enterprises to generate high-quality software via a continuous testing, deployment, feedback, and developer bug fixes/changes process. This increases the likelihood of a shorter time to market.
- Improved cooperation – DevOps makes it easier for team members to work together. Many inter-departmental silos will be broken down if the project is successful.
- DevOps encourages the integration of security into the development process. DevSecOps is a word that arose from DevOps.
- Better feedback – DevOps advocates for a complete feedback system in which consumers offer direct input to developers.
- Reliability – DevOps maintains quality throughout the lifecycle via continuous testing.
List some scenarios that might make a DevOps shift difficult.
If the company fails at DevOps, be sure to bring up each of these scenarios in the interview, particularly with this popular DevOps question.
- DevOps is a method of thinking. DevOps isn’t really a procedure. It is a philosophy that differs from one organization to the next.
- Agile and DevOps are the same thing — Agile is a software development technique, whereas DevOps includes people and culture.
- More silos – A departmental or organizational silo is a mentality that hinders team members from sharing their expertise with other teams.
- Responsibility is not clearly defined — Knowing who is responsible for what in a team is critical. The DevOps concept will not function otherwise.
- Resistance to change – DevOps focuses significantly on continual improvement, which necessitates reconsidering what is achievable on a regular basis.
- A low risk tolerance – DevOps may add extra risk to critical systems in a variety of ways, at least at first. A full-fledged DevOps implementation will fail if firms take a cautious management approach.
- Some firms mistakenly believe that DevOps is only a release engineer. You may have an organization that follows the actual DevOps concept or one that applies DevOps to the function of release engineer or platform engineer.
Controlling the source/version
Finding the correct tools for the whole life cycle and offering training to assist a team come up to speed with those tools is crucial when a firm chooses to deploy DevOps. With these DevOps interview questions, make sure you cover source and version control.
Out of the suite of tools involved in DevOps, Controlling the source/version is most important. Know how to answer these questions!
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What does version control entail?
When it comes to providing apps to clients, developers need a “stake in the ground.” They need a method for labeling code at a specified location. This advantage is provided via version control.
Developers may also assign versions to a codebase’s state and refer to those versions across time using version control.
What does source control entail?
Source and version control are related technologies that are often used interchangeably, although they serve distinct goals. Source control is more than just assigning a number to a code state.
Source control is a tool that enables developers to easily discuss and manage any changes to a source. It does this by keeping track of all code modifications and who made them.
What are some benefits of a Controlling the source/version system?
A Controlling the source/version system allows you to:
- Before committing any code, compare files, detect discrepancies in content, and integrate modifications if necessary.
- Provide a history of all changes, including the change, who made it, when it happened, and so on.
Describe a few branching techniques.
Branching is a common DevOps interview question you must come across. It is a strategy used in Controlling the source/version to facilitate parallel development. Instead of many developers working on a single codebase together potentially conflicting, they create clones or branches of the main codebase.
Developers then work on their own copy of the code, which they eventually merge back into the main codebase with the rest of the code.
A branching strategy is a set of guidelines that a team agrees on when it comes to branching and merging code back into the main source. The following are some examples of common branch types:
- Hotfixes are short-term branches that are incorporated into the main codebase after fixing an issue.
- Feature – A collection of modifications made by several developers that together constitute a single new product feature.
- Develop – A vast collection of modifications made by several developers to a codebase that represents all functioning changes. This branch will be integrated into the main codebase at some point.
Pipelines for Build and Release Automation
The automation that delivers code products to consumers is one of the most critical aspects of a DevOps engineer’s work. Build and release pipelines are at the heart of this automation. A pipeline is a procedure that guarantees that all needed activities are completed from the moment a developer checks in code to source control when the client uses it.
Development, testing, deployment, and delivery are all steps of the build and release process. Because DevOps is about continually providing value to consumers, each of these phases usually includes ‘continuous’ in front of the word.
What is a pipeline, exactly?
Development and operations teams utilize pipelines to design, monitor, create, and distribute software. A pipeline is a series of operations that run in a certain order every time a change in code is detected.
Continuous integration, continuous deployment, and continuous delivery are three software development steps that may be used in a pipeline to send new versions of software to production settings. Each of these pipelines shows the degree to which a company decides to automate and specify rigorous procedures prior to deploying code into a production environment.
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What exactly are the stages of a DevOps deployment pipeline?
DevOps firms use a six-step process to deliver software to clients.
- A strategy should be in place that describes the sort of application that will be developed.
- Code — The developers create code based on the end-needs. user’s
- Build – The code is packaged and sent to the final customer.
- Unit testing is performed on the code to guarantee there are no bugs.
- Deploy — The application is deployed to a test environment, which may be on-premise or in the cloud.
- Monitor — The performance of the application is monitored, and any necessary adjustments are sent to the developers. Continuous Monitoring is the term used in a CI/CD pipeline to guarantee that what you anticipate throughout the lifetime is correct.
How would you define Continuous Integration, Continuous Deployment, and Continuous Delivery?
Continuous Integration (CI) is a software development method in which developers are required to regularly integrate code changes into a common, central repository. After the changes are integrated, teams run automated tests and builds to verify each check-in, helping them to spot issues early.
Continuous Delivery includes all CI features while also automating the deployment of changes to test environments and testing those changes. Continuous Delivery is a “manual” endeavor since the software is not sent to the production environment automatically.
Continuous Deployment automates the last step of the software journey by deploying applications to production environments.
What is Continuous Testing and How Does It Work?
Testing is a key component of DevOps. Continuous testing is required of developers and build/release engineers. Rather to manually testing services, DevOps supports continuous testing or automated tests that run in almost every phase of a pipeline.
Testing is ongoing:
- Allows for speedier software delivery by discovering issues early in the software development lifecycle.
- Reduces bugs by prioritizing automated testing.
- Feedback is obtained early in the life cycle, which aids in the development of high-quality software.
Describe a few different forms of testing.
Because testing is so important in DevOps, practitioners must divide testing into several groups. Software and the mechanisms that supply it must be regularly tested.
For every DevOps interview question, be aware of these forms of testing.
- Unit testing is a testing process that examines individual lines of code to see whether they meet the given criteria. During the build phase, unit tests are run. To divide out distinct functionality during unit testing, functionality is typically mocked or substituted with fake data.
Understanding Mocking in Pester is related.
- Smoke/integration/verification testing
After the code has been thoroughly tested, it must be incorporated into an environment. It must be installed and run on a system. The term “integration testing” is used to describe the process of testing this capability.
Integration tests are run when compiled code and a testing environment are combined.
Acceptance testing is the last step of testing in a deployment process. Acceptance does not examine the code or ensure that it has been properly integrated into the environment. Acceptance testing examines the software’s ultimate result.
An acceptance test may, for example, determine if a web server delivers an HTTP/200 message or whether a web page shows the proper page.
Management of Configuration
Code must have somewhere to run on, and that somewhere needs to be configured to a proper specification and stay there. This is where Management of Configuration comes in.
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What is Management of Configuration and why is it important?
Software must be deployed to an environment. It must run on a server of some kind. That server then has various configuration items to configure it as an organization expects, such as patching, files, services running, etc. Management of Configuration handles all of that.
Management of Configuration is a system engineering process that builds and maintains configuration items and establishes and maintains a product’s consistency over its life cycle.
Management of Configuration process provides the following benefits and may just be your next DevOps interview question.
- Reduces risk – risk factors are decreased as a result of accurate identification and rectification of faulty settings, and your firm may benefit from greater business agility and quicker issue response.
- Enhances resiliency — Enables better change management and speedier service restoration in the case of a process breakdown.
- Reduces costs — Understanding all aspects of the setup helps to avoid duplication of work.
Why is Infrastructure as Code important?
Infrastructure-as-Code (IaC) is a programming language for defining infrastructure and services. IaC may be thought of as configuration as code. It specifies the instructions that infrastructure-provisioning tools must follow in order to construct the infrastructure that organizations need.
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IaC assists in a variety of ways:
- Organizations can construct infrastructure considerably faster with automated technologies than they can manually.
- Consistency — Using automated tooling such as IaC tools guarantees that infrastructure is provided consistently.
- Reduced management overhead — Because IaC is written in code, it encourages shorter feedback loops and better change management.
Virtualization and Containerization
In a DevOps environment, virtualization technology is unavoidable when it comes to infrastructure. We used to have virtual machines that virtualized servers, but now we have containers that are quicker, lighter, and more efficient.
What are containers, exactly?
Without a container question, no DevOps interview is complete. A container is a thin, virtualized operating system that runs on top of a host and uses the kernel of the host. A container isolates a service’s dependencies in a single package, allowing it to function in a variety of settings.
Containerization encapsulates the code as well as all of the dependencies required for the program to execute. Containers make it possible to write “portable” apps once and execute them wherever.
What’s the difference between virtual machines and containers?
A container is an isolated, lightweight silo that executes a program on the host operating system and acts as a lightweight virtualization solution. Unlike virtual machines, containerization operates on a layer directly atop the hardware (VM).
A virtual machine (VM) is a software program that runs on top of the host’s operating system and emulates the capabilities of physical hardware or a computational device. Containers offer lightweight separation from the host and other containers, while virtual machines provide isolation from the host operating system.
What benefits does containerization provide over virtualization?
While virtualization allows different operating systems to be installed on a single physical server, containerization allows many programs to be installed on a single virtual machine that runs the same operating system.
The following are the key benefits of containerization:
- Flexibility – It’s light and can be started and stopped in a matter of seconds.
- Support for isolation gives improved security.
- Portability – Allows for deployment anywhere, even hybrid environments.
- Agility – You don’t need an operating system to run. Containers are an excellent solution for jobs with a brief lifespan.
- Fault isolation – Each containerized application operates independently of the others. The failure of one container has no impact on the other containers’ functionality.
What is Docker and why does it matter?
Docker is a well-known software platform for creating containerized apps. It’s the de facto standard for creating and distributing containerized apps.
Docker is a container engine that uses Linux Kernel capabilities like namespaces and control groups to construct containers on top of an operating system.
Docker revolutionized the game by making containers more accessible, despite the fact that container technology has existed for many years prior to Docker. It allowed everyone to benefit from containers and made container management easier for users.
What exactly is Kubernetes and why does it matter?
Kubernetes is an open-source container orchestration tool used to simplify activities such as containerized Management of Configuration, testing, scaling, and deployment. It is used to efficiently handle several containers, allowing for the discovery and management of logical units.
Kubernetes is a clustering solution that comprises of nodes, which are servers, and services that execute on those nodes. Each node has a specialized job, such as acting as an orchestrator for the worker nodes that operate the containers.
What are the differences between Docker and Kubernetes?
Docker is a container lifecycle management solution that creates runtime containers using Docker images. Kubernetes, on the other hand, is a container management system.
Docker Swarm is a product that competes with Kubernetes. Docker Swarm is a container clustering and scheduling system. Auto-scaling is supported by Kubernetes but not by Docker Swarm. Kubernetes, unlike Docker Swarm, offers built-in logging and tracking resources.
The “devops interview questions github” is a list of 20 DevOps interview questions. The list includes the question, the answer and a link to where the question can be found on Github.
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